Welcome! This guide is a starting point for your research related to psychology.
You can use Research Help services or contact Mia Breitkopf, the librarian for Psychology, to set up a research appointment.
Empirical sources are those that come from original research and would also be considered primary sources. You can easily recognize an empirical research paper as it usually contains the following sections within the body of the article:
Primary sources are the original materials, where the author has been directly involved in the research or event. A primary source remains in its original form, uninterpreted by others. Examples would be diaries, correspondences, letters, emails, speeches, empirical research, etc.
Secondary sources are items written after the fact. The perspective is different as the author is interpreting what has already happened. Common secondary sources would be newspaper articles, some journal articles, commentaries, criticisms, reviews of the literature, etc.
Tertiary sources are compilations of primary and secondary sources, comprised mainly of facts and references to other sources. Common tertiary sources would be handbooks, almanacs, guidebooks, indexes, dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.
Scholarly sources, also referred to as academic, refereed, or peer-reviewed, are those written by experts, traditionally professors and scientists.