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Citation Resources: APA 6th Ed: References

A guide to bibliographic citation formats and citation management tools.


The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provides detailed guidelines for using APA style. You can find a copy of both the 6th edition and the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual at the Research Help Desk at Lavery Library. You can also find a copy of each of the editions on our shelves, and check them out of the library.

Additional Info

Additional information on APA style may be found at these websites:

Journal Articles (Print & Online)

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Article title: Article subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL as shown below.)

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
Graham, S. (2006). Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies, 40 (1), 156-159.
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

That is, each issue begins on page 1.

Simmons, C., & Becker-Olsen, K. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 154-169.
Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 16(4), 35-36.
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from
Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.), pp. D1-D2.
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from

This is a brave new world: articles published on the web before they've been put into a journal "issue." See details at

Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0028240

Before it is officially published, an article may appear online as an "author accepted manuscript" or an article "in press". This means it was accepted for publication, but may be slightly different than the officially published version. For more information, see

Cherkin, D.C., Sherman, K.J., Kahn, J., Wellman, R., Cook, A.J., Johnson, E., Erro, J., Delaney, K., & Deyo, R.A. (in press). A Comparison of the effects of 2 types of massage and usual care on chronic low back pain: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 

For additional examples, see pages 198-202 in the APA Publication Manual (2010) or the OWL at Purdue.

Books (Print & Online)

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. doi:xxxxx
Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. Retrieved from
Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0034586772
Hock, R., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from
Trebuchet. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam

When citing a whole book which has authors rather than editors:

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

In edited books, you will often cite only one chapter, which usually has its own author.

Willson, Jr., R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST Works.

When citing the whole multivolume work:

Wright, Sewell. (1968-1978). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. (Vols. 1-4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. (1969). Theory of Gene Frequencies: Vol. 2. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

For additional examples, see pages 202-208 in the APA Publication Manual (2010) or the OWL at Purdue.

Other Online Sources

This common citation type covers a lot of what is cited online. APA's 6th Edition Manual does not provide clear guidance on this citation type, but common consensus has led to a format as follows based on their other guidelines. Changes are forthcoming in the Manual’s 7th Edition.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of section or document. Broader Website's Title. Retrieved from
Rosenbaum, S., Mehta, D., Dorley, M., Hurt, C., Rothenberg, S., & Lopez, N. (2015). Medicaid benefit designs for newly eligible adults: State approaches. Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved from

Note: web documents often do not list an author. The document may be cited as though it were written by an organization or company, rather than a person. This is called a "corporate author." In the example below, the corporate author's name is also the broader website's title, so the latter has been omitted from the citation.

Canadian Cancer Society. (2013). Cancer research. Retrieved from

See also the OWL page for referencing authors, as these situations can get tricky.

Most things you cite will be pages, sections, or documents on a website. These may be cited through a citation similar to that in the section above.

According to previous guidance from APA, full websites are not to be listed in reference list, but rather , "it is sufficient to give the website address in the text (in parentheses)." (see FAQ)

Example from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses
Bixler, H. A. M. (2015). Meeting at a Crossroad: Traditional Irish Music and Classical Music Taught in the Same Space (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (UMI Number 10296234)

The UMI Number in these citations is now called a "Dissertation/thesis number" in ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Example from a university's dissertation repository
Dillane, A. (2000). The Ivory Bridge: Piano Accompaniment on 78rpm Recorded Sources of Irish Traditional Dance Music America c. 1910-1945 (Masters thesis, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland). Retrieved from
AuthorLastname, F. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from https:// internet address

(If only author's screen name is available, use that for the author's name.)

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from
Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from

(Note: "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.)

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from

(Note: "MiddleKid" is a screen name, which the author used when posting to this blog.)

Online resources can take many forms.  For additional examples, see pages 214-215 in the APA Publication Manual (2010) or the OWL at Purdue.

Audiovisual Media

The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band [Record]. United States: Capitol Records.
Beyoncé. (2016). Formation. On Lemonade [CD]. New York: Columbia.
Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To Kill a Mockingbird (Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.
Ryan, K. O., & Schrank, L. (Writers). (2008). Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. Available from
David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.
If you use an image, table, or figure (or some data in a table or figure) from another source, then you must acknowledge your source in a note below the table or figure.
Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from

For additional examples, see pages 209-210 in the APA Publication Manual (2010) or the OWL at Purdue.

Nursing Unbound, Lippincott Advisor, Drugs & Clinical Care Entries

As Recommended by Lavery Library.  For citation of common sources like articles, books and websites, see the Lavery Library Citation Guide

Omeprazole. (2016, December 9). In Lexi-Drugs. Retrieved from Lexicomp database.

Omeprazole. (2016, December 9). In Pediatric and Neonatal Lexi-Drugs. Retrieved from Lexicomp database.

Omeprazole. (2016, March 3). In AHFS Essentials (Adult and Pediatric). Retrieved from Lexicomp database.

Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy. (2016, April 25). In Lexi-Drugs. Retrieved from Lexicomp database.

Paraplegia and Quadriplegia. (2017, March 15). In Patient Education. Retrieved from Lexicomp database.

* The dates are the updated date of the entry, not the date they entry was accessed.

Omeprazole.  (2017, January 11). Retrieved from Micromedex Solutions database.  

Diabetes mellitus.  (2017, January 3). Retrieved from Micromedex Solutions database.

* The dates are the updated date of the entry, not the date they entry was accessed.

Omeprazole. (2017, January 6).  Retrieved from DynaMed Plus database.

Chisholm, A., & Siegal Peiser, B. (2016, October 20). Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Retrieved from Dynamed Plus database.

* The dates are the updated date of the entry, not the date they entry was accessed.

Davis’s Drug Guide

Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski,  C. A., & Deglin, J. H. (2017). Omeprazole.  In H. G. Mansell (Contributing Ed.),

Davis’s Drug Guide (15th ed.). F.A. Davis Company.  In Nursing Central [Mobile application

software]. Available from

Davis’s Lab & Diagnostic Tests

Van Leeuwen, A. M., & Bladh, M. L. (2017).  Glycated hemoglobin. In Davis’s comprehensive handbook of

laboratory and diagnostic tests with nursing implications (7th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. In Nursing

Central [Mobile application software]. Available from


Diseases and Disorders

Sommers, M. S., & Fannin, E. F. (2015).  Diabetes insipidus. In Diseases and disorders: A nursing

therapeutics manual (5th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. In Nursing Central [Mobile application

software]. Available from

Nurse’s Pocket Guide

Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., Muur, A. C. (Eds.). (2016).  Diabetes mellitus. In Nurses’s pocket guide.

Diagnoses, prioritized interventions, and rationales (14th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. In Nursing

Central [Mobile application software]. Available from


Taber’s Medical Dictionary

Venes, D. (Ed.). (2017).  Diabetes mellitus. In Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (23rd ed.). F.A. Davis

Company. In Nursing Central [Mobile application software]. Available from https://nursing.

Performances and Personal Communications

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications, personal interviews, etc. Because they do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list. The same is true of live performances.

Instead, you should cite these sources in your text with initial and last name of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.


M. E. Daniels, Jr. (personal communication, July 4, 2009), explained in an email that . . .

(Butler Ballet, performance, December 13, 2008)

If you are citing a recording or archived copy of the performance or personal communication, these forms are recoverable and should be referenced in your Works Cited list as a video, online forum post, tape recording, etc.