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Citation Resources

A guide to bibliographic citation formats and citation management tools.


If a DOI is available, cite it like this. If it's not already present, add "" before the DOI (which starts with the number 10).

Natarajan, Mangai. "Police Culture and the Integration of Women Officers in India." International Journal of Police Science and Management, vol. 16, no. 2, 2014, pp. 124 -139. Academic Search Complete,

If no DOI is available, but there is a permalink*, cite it like this.

Dennett, Daniel C. "When Philosophers Encounter Artificial Intelligence." Daedalus, vol. 117, no. 1, winter 1998, pp. 283-295. JSTOR,
Hansson, Heidi, and Cathrine Norberg. "Winter Feeds It: Cold and the Construction of Good and Evil in Susan Cooper's The Dark is Rising." The Lion and the Unicorn, vol. 40, no. 1, Johns Hopkins UP, 2016, pp. 62-80. Project Muse,
Dietschy, Paul, et al. "Parallel Myths, Popular Maps: The Europe Of Soccer." Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society, vol. 1, no. 2, 2009, pp. 125-144. MLA International Bibliography.
Reed, Stanley. "Seeing Past the War." Business Week, 21 Aug. 2006, pp. 35-36.
Mather, Victor. "A Brief Guide to Every Sport at the Olympics." The New York Times, 9 May 2021,


Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.
Bérubé, Michael. The Secret Life of Stories: From Don Quixote to Harry Potter, How Understanding Intellectual Disability Transforms the Way We Read. E-book ed., NYU Press, 2016.
Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.
---. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind, and His Music. U of Chicago P, 1968.
Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher's Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. CyberAge Books, 2004.
Davidson, William, et al. Retailing Management. 6th ed., Wiley, 1988.

If a book contains works by a specific author, but edited by someone else, cite it like this.

Millay, Edna St. Vincent. Collected Poems. Edited by Norma Millay. Harper, 1956.
Willson Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, Greenwood P, 2005, pp. 47-64.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center's Citations by Format page: Citations by Format

Other Common Sources

The Nature Conservancy. 2021,
"New York." The Nature Conservancy. 2021,
MsJames [@iamthatenglishteacher]. "Grammar Lesson - Using capital letters." TikTok, 2020,
​Homer, Winslow. The Artist's Studio in an Afternoon Fog. 1894. Memorial Art Gallery,
Ghostbusters. Directed by Paul Feig, Columbia Pictures, 2016. Hulu app.

Note: You may list multiple types of contributors if your discussion focuses on their contribution.

Feig, Paul, director, performance by Leslie Jones. Ghostbusters. Columbia Pictures, 2016. Hulu app.
"Li'l Sebastian." Parks and Recreation, season 3, episode 16, NBC, 19 May 2011. Peacock app.

Note: If you are writing about a specific character, include the creator(s) and performer(s). You may choose to include information about directors, performers, writers, or producers if your discussion focuses on their contribution.

"Li'l Sebastian." Parks and Recreation, created by Michael Herbert Schur, performances by Amy Poehler and Rashida Jones, season 3, episode 16, NBC, 19 May 2011. Peacock app.
"Lavery Minute - Getting Research Help." YouTube, uploaded by sjfclaverylibrary, 18 Aug. 2015,
Battle, Tameka S. Black Women Community College Professors’ Perceptions of Relational Mentoring and Achieving Tenure.2020. St. John Fisher College, EdD dissertation. Fisher Digital Publications,
Timmons-Long, LaMar, and Cody Miller. "Identity, Community, and Family: What Love, Victor Can Teach Us About Our Classrooms." Literacy & NCTE, 3 July 2020,
Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Illyich. The Nutcracker. Directed by Richard Clark, performed by Butler Ballet, 2 Dec. 2008, Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center's Citations by Format page: Citations by Format